As the Age of Aquarius approaches there is an increasing urgency to this message because we’re all, literally, running out of time to play in the third dimension.
In simple terms, the habit of thinking and feeling and behaving that we know of as the third dimension is going away. Everyone is shifting into a fourth dimensional consciousness and experience, and then into a fifth dimensional consciousness and experience.
However, most people on the planet are not prepared for this Shift. But it is happening nonetheless, and for those who are unaware of what’s going on it will not be an easy or comfortable experience.
Yet this can be a wonderful, enjoyable time as well. With some basic information about what the Shift is, and what “dimensions” are, and with simple tools to help manage our thoughts and feelings, everyone has the ability to evolve their consciousness and move gracefully and joyfully into these higher vibrational realms.
If you don’t know what dimensions are, you are not alone. Most people playing the game of life as we know it in the third dimension are playing without a “rule book” that would explain what the game really is and how one can play it successfully.
This article provides these basic, missing rules. It explains what the third, fourth, and fifth dimensions are, and why they are the most important consideration of your life right now.
If you can understand the structure and play of these dimensions, you can begin to move fluidly through the unprecedented changes of this Shift without fear, without effort, without the tension and anxiety that is, for the most part, the daily habit of our lives.
So, first of all, let me define what dimensions are not.
Dimensions are not places or locations, and they are not a linear progression – 3, 4, 5, 6 – stacked up like pancakes. Andthe 3rd dimension, or the 4th dimension, is not the chair you’re sitting in, or the walls that surround you, or even the Earth itself. That is form, which exists predominantly in the 3rd and 4th dimensions, and which will still be very much part of the play in the 4th dimension when the 3rd dimension is no longer an option.
In general, dimensions are states of consciousness available to anyone who vibrates in resonance with the specific frequencies and opportunities available within each dimension.
In a way, you could think of each dimension as a different game with a different set of rules as to what is possible and not possible for the beings that choose to play and create there.
So what is the 3rd Dimension?
The third dimension (3D) is a box of rigid beliefs, more or less, with a relatively inflexible set of rules and limitations. Most of us have been playing this game for lifetimes, so we tend to think it is the only game available to us. But nothing could be further from the truth. One of the rigid 3D beliefs that structure our lives – our thinking and feeling and actions – is linear time.
Linear time is an optional belief and structure that let’s us “live” an experience of past and a future… and then we die. Because this belief is the default assumption of mass 3D consciousness, and events seem to validate the belief, most of us think and act as if it’s true.
But now we are all waking up from the illusion of this ubiquitous belief. And as you become more conscious, you realize that time in 3D is actually a time loop. What you experience in “the past” is pretty much what you put your attention on now, and you project that reality into “the future,” and therefore you experience it over and over again.
So the structure of time is quite specific (and limiting) in the 3rd dimension, but your experience of time is quite different (and empowering) as you move into higher dimensions.
Everything in a 3D consciousness is also very conditional. The concept of, for example, ‘unconditional love,’ does not exist in the 3rd dimension. If you experience ‘unconditional love’ or ‘unconditional peace’ you have actually moved into a fourth dimensional (4D) consciousness.
You see, in the earth experience now, we have access to both 3rd and 4th dimensional consciousness, but most of us rarely step out of the well-grooved habits of 3D thinking and feeling.
The 3rd dimension also offers no possibility of choice. We don’t choose our thoughts, feelings, and actions in every moment (that’s a skill of 4D and 5D), instead we react from unconscious beliefs and training to the people and situations that pop up in our space.
Duality provides another rigid structure for 3D experience. Up/down. Left/right. Should/shouldn’t. Since the fall of Atlantis 12,500 years ago, we have become very fearful as a way of life, and in that fear we have learned to narrowly define good and bad, right and wrong, etc. Unconscious judgment permeates 3D thinking.
Moreover, we perceive our 3D experience predominantly with the left hemisphere of the brain, home of the rational mind, and so we use only about 5 to 10 percent of the brain’s capacity to play the 3D game. Most of us suspect the rest of our brain must do something but have no idea what it actually does and how it functions.
In fact, what the rest of the brain enables us to do is function in the higher 4th and 5th dimensions, and beyond.
We already have the potential, all the necessary equipment and wiring, right now, to be fully conscious in all these dimensions. But our habits of thinking and feeling, grooved over many lifetimes, dumbs= us down and limit us to 3D experience. Our left-brain, rational mind only knows what it knows, and doesn’t know what it doesn’t know, and it works tirelessly to keep us within a thin range of objective 3D thinking and possibilities. And we, for the most part, have gone along for the ride. But no longer.
The increasing light energies and frequencies of the Shift are rewiring our brains to allow us access to a much wider range of information and possibility than is available in the 3rd dimension. These light energies are preparing us for 4D and 5D experience, even as they are clearing the rigid 3D “rules” from our consciousness.
So what is the 4th Dimension?
The “rules” of 4th dimensional consciousness provide an enhanced sense of ease, possibility, and capability than the structures of the 3rd dimension.
Time in 4D, for example, is always present time. The focus is only ever this moment, what is happening right now. Our bodies already know only this present time; they can’t know ‘yesterday’ or ‘tomorrow,’ and as conscious beings in our natural alignment in the higher 4th dimension, we function absolutely in this “Now” of present time awareness and attention. When our attention point becomes present time awareness, choice becomes possible again. We can observe any and all events with a sense of detachment, merely as information to consider, and from that still, uncluttered platform we are then, and only then, free to choose our response. In the higher 4th dimension we become response-able.
A concept and possibility known as paradox also becomes available in the present time of 4D consciousness. Paradox simply means that what was true just a moment ago may not be true right now. And what was false a moment ago may no longer be false. Instead of applying rigid, pre-existing definitions to any experience, we choose our preferred version and vibration in every moment.
So as we move into 4D consciousness in present time, with the power of choice and response-ability, and the flexibility of paradox, the ability to alter the game to enhance our happiness and wellbeing becomes available.
Interestingly, 4D consciousness will not be a long-term option after the Shift clears away the rigid structures of 3D consciousness.
The 4th dimension is serving as an essential, but short-lived, stepping stone or vibrational platform from which we will all move into 5th dimensional consciousness. 5D is the target for Earth and all her inhabitants. The archangels have said the entire consciousness of Earth will be a fifth dimensional consciousness by the year 2015.
But although the 5th dimension is the target, the experience of the 4th dimension is essential. We cannot enter 5D directly from 4D. All mental and emotional baggage from the 3rd dimension must be left at the door to the 4th dimension, and we can only enter the 5th dimension after we have become masterful of our thoughts and feelings in the 4th dimension.
Some assembly is required.
So what is the 5th Dimension?
The 5th dimension operates, to a great extent, in a completely differently fashion from the 3rd and 4th dimensions.
Time in 5D is instantaneous time, meaning that everything (all possibilities) occurs in the same place at the same moment. In 5D, you focus your attention and the answer or experience is given to you exactly when and where you focus.
Ask and you shall receive.
In 5D, you don’t have to move or go anywhere for your answers or experiences; everything comes to you easily and effortlessly based upon the attention point and vibration you choose to hold in every moment.
When you are vibrating in 5D consciousness, you don’t create with form as you do in the 3rd and 4th dimensions, you create with light and light patterns and light frequencies. You apply sound and color and geometric shapes. You consciously interact with the Creator and all the Beings of Light.
In this heightened consciousness, the rational mind plays a very minimal role. It returns to a small, specific focus it was intended to have, namely the wellbeing of the physical body.
So how do you become masterful in 4D consciousness?
The Tools of 4D Present Time
As I mentioned, 4D is the ‘right now’ of ‘present time.’ But present time actually has four different levels.
The vast majority of people on this planet are not prepared to be the masters of their every thought, feeling, and action in every moment. But there’s no option. It’s a required, baseline skill of higher 4D and 5D consciousness.
One of the reasons the 3rd dimension was created was to provide a “playground” in which we each can practice and hone the vibration of our thoughts and feelings. To accomplish this, the 3D playground has a time buffer. Instead of ‘instant manifestation’ there is a time lag between the thought we think and the manifestation or experience of that thought. For the most part, we are very sloppy with this buffer.
Instead of focusing on what we want, and allowing this to unfold over time, we spew anger, frustration, boredom, worry, anxiety, blame, guilt, fear – all kinds of lower, disharmonic thoughts and feelings. We behave as if we can think and feel anything with impunity because we do not see the instantaneous results of our thinking.
But no longer. As 3D linear time is collapsing into a single point of present time, the time buffer is collapsing too. We have less opportunity to practice being aware of our mental and emotional habits before what we think is what we get. This is a very big deal.
Fortunately, some simple energy tools can help you manage your thoughts and emotions in every moment so that you can be prepared for the unprecedented opportunity and challenge of living and creating in present time in the higher dimensions.
These basic energy tools are available for free on our website www.masteringalchemy .com but let me explain a few of them here by way of example.
Allow the Shift to clear your unconscious thoughts & feelings
In simple terms, the Shift is using one wave of light frequencies to clear away who we are not, and another wave to remind us who we are. The Shift knows where we’ve stored unwanted, unconscious habits of thought and reactionary emotion, and the light is clearing all this from our vibration.
However, as these lesser thoughts and feelings are cleared, they will come into our awareness, and magnetize people and circumstances to us that mirror these chaotic energies. How do you handle these often-powerful energies when they appear. You allow them. If you can simply observe them with a sense of detachment as they come up – knowing that they are just coming up to be cleared – they will clear quickly, and you won’t even remember what the fuss was all about.
But if you grab hold and engage these chaotic thoughts and feelings, if you insist on feeling guilty or worrying, if you continue to argue that ‘I am not OK’ or ‘They are not OK,’ these energies will not be cleared from your space – and the Shift, as it accelerates ever faster, will become a very bumpy, very ‘not OK’ road for you.
Remember most often what comes up is not even yours; it does not belong to you. Acknowledge it and know that it’s coming up to be cleared… forever. Take a couple of deep breaths, go for a walk, listen to music — but turn your attention point to something of a higher vibration.
Understanding the Lower and Higher 4th Dimension
To simplify another important aspect of the Shift, let’s imagine that the 4th dimension has just two parts to it – a lower 4th dimension and a higher 4th dimension. (This is not technically true, but it’s a useful distinction.)
As I mentioned, form will remain when 3D disappears. We’ll still experience houses and cars and trees. But fear, judgments, blame and guilt, the rights and the wrongs, will disappear. All this dense emotional energy, which is the only thing that prevents us from playing in the higher dimensions right now, will simply be cleared from our space.
However, depending upon the vibration of the thoughts you are thinking as 3D disappears, you will find yourself in either the lower 4th dimension or the higher 4th dimension.
The lower 4th dimension, which is also called the astral plane or dream space, holds all the thoughts ever thought by anyone in the 3rd dimension.
You see, thoughts don’t just disappear after we think them. They live on in the lower 4th dimension, with specific weight, texture, density and emotional charge. And they bond and cluster with all the other thoughts of similar character.
Some thoughts – such as rape, domination, slavery, war, hatred – feel heavy, dense and dark. Conversely, thoughts such as ‘butterflies,’ ‘children playing in the park,’ and ‘flowers blooming on a warm spring day’ feel light and have a simple, airy vibration. Lighter thoughts like these rarely linger in a 3D consciousness. Because in order to align and feel the vibration of, for example, ‘beauty,’ we must step out of 3D consciousness into present time, a higher 4th dimensional space.
Wait, you say, I know ‘Beauty!’ You do, because we’re now living in both the third and fourth dimensions simultaneously, but how often do you align yourself with, and linger on, the feeling of beauty?
It’s a 4D, present-time skill to take thoughts like ‘light,’ ‘airy’ and ‘beauty’ to heart. These vibrations don’t even exist in the hurry up, past/future of the 3rd dimension where it’s very difficult to pause in present time and smell a flower.
But, on the other hand, have you noticed that heavy, uncomfortable thoughts such as ‘I’m not good enough.’ or ‘They don’t like me.’ or ’I’m never going to succeed.’ tend to linger quite a bit longer in 3D consciousness? This is because thoughts are electric and emotions are magnetic. A set of light, airy vibrations like ‘beauty’ or ‘graciousness’ has a low, soft, electrical charge that is expansive and fluid. Whereas heavier, uglier thoughts come highly charged and wrapped in highly magnetic emotions. These thoughts are not only harder to clear than kind, loving thoughts; they also bond magnetically to all other thoughts like them in the lower 4th dimension.
So much of the magnetic field we walk around in – I’m not OK, You’re not OK – has very little to do with who we really are. It’s just the magnetism of one heavy, unconscious thought attaching itself to the magnetism of similar heavy, unconscious thoughts.
You begin to see why it’s vital to become conscious of the thoughts you think and the emotions you throw into your vibrational mix.
Fortunately, the second wave of the Shift is making this easier and easier. As we let go of the heavier energies of Who We Are Not, the light is rewiring us, stepping us up into a higher 4th dimensional vibration where lesser thoughts and emotions are not such a distraction in our general experience.
We start to live in alignment with the heart, and experience the vibrations and consequences of concepts such as ‘I like me,’ ‘I’m happy,’ ‘I’m pleased with myself.’
The alignment with the heart becomes natural because it already is our natural alignment in the higher fourth, fifth and sixth dimensions.
However, some assembly is required.
Any limitations, judgments, denials, blame, guilt, or resentments that we each still argue for, in one way or the other, become like weights on a hot air balloon. They limit how far we can rise within the fourth dimensional range of vibration.
Each of us is 100 percent in charge of the process. The more weight – lower-vibrational patterns of words, thoughts, and emotions – we remove, the higher we rise into the expansive experience of the higher 4th dimension. Here, it is as if we look past the boundaries and limitations, which were always just a habit of observation in 3D. It’s a wider view, a calmer view, and a quieter view. In the upper 4th dimension, you can choose fear or worry, and drop into the lower 4th dimension… but you won’t.
As you begin to align with the heart, very naturally – ‘I Like Me’ – you’re going to find there’s no reason or compulsion to choose an uncomfortable attention point in the lower 4th dimension. It comes naturally and readily because it is the language and vibration of you’re natural well being – if you let it, and if you focus upon it.
It’s a choice.
As the shift accelerates and time collapses and everything is in the present moment, you could still choose your thoughts and feelings unconsciously, out of 3rd dimensional habit, and you would have the opportunity to live that discomfort immediately and fully in your experience.
Or you can choose your thought and emotion in every moment, with focus and awareness, and live the fullness of that experience.
In other words, it’s to your benefit to practice and integrate the ability to choose the contents of your consciousness right now, before it really counts – and that moment is not very far away.
It’s all up to you.
Until now, the center of your head, the place from where you can choose your thoughts and attention point, has been pre-occupied by the thoughts of others. Your Mom-Dad-Teacher-Minister loved you and had an opinion about the best way for you to live your life, and as their thoughts moved in to your head, “You” moved out.
Now it is time to take back ownership of the center of your head. As you recognize and let go of the unnatural thoughts that say, ‘Oh, I can’t do this’ and ‘I can’t do that’ and ‘I must do this,’ you’re going to find that soon all those thoughts, with their sticky interlocking connections in the lower 4th dimension, disappear.
Just putting your attention in present time on ‘beauty’ and ‘well-being‘, or just being ‘happy’ in a state of ‘ease‘, eliminates the lesser vibrations stored within the lower astral fields of the 4th dimension.
Start by playing with the vibration of what I call Living Words. The Archangels very deliberately and precisely selected these words – words such as Certain, Capable, Commanding, Present, Senior, Graciousness and Happy – so that you can most easily clear all the unconscious vibrations from your space.
Choose one word each day and live with it all day, think it and feel it often.
If you practice thinking and feeling these vibrations now, when it doesn’t absolutely count, they will become your habit when it does count.
You begin to gracefully realign with the fullness of “You,” and your natural state of wellbeing lifts you into the higher 4th dimension.
Easy? Kind of.
Does it require awareness and a choice from a present time space? Absolutely.
Can you sit on the sidelines and hope it all turns out? No.
Increased levels of electromagnetic light from the higher dimensions are now flowing within all of us. Many people in the 3rd dimension cannot handle this surge, and they are choosing to step out of their
And many, many more will follow as the Shift accelerates
You see, everyone is going home to the 4th and then 5th dimensions, but not everyone is going home on the same timeline, and with the same ease and grace.
How do you choose?
Author: Dr Mae Wan Ho. Source: www.theecologist.org
Extensive, long running evidence for the cancer-causing effects of glyphosate, and other toxic impacts, have been ignored by regulators. Indeed as the evidence has built up, permitted levels in food have been hugely increased, writes Dr Mae Wan Ho.
The public were kept in the dark through a litany of outright fraud committed by testing companies working for the corporations, deception, and half-truths.
New research shows that the low levels of glyphosate found in human urine can promote the growth of human breast cancer cells, confirming the carcinogenic potential of the herbicide known since the 1980s.
The findings follow the unsettling results of the Séralini study – which almost certainly lie behind its notorious retraction by the journal editor a year after it was published (see Retracting Seralini Study Violates Science & Ethics, SiS 61) – are cancers in rats fed GM maize and / or exposed to Roundup.
Although the word ‘cancer’ was never used by the authors, they recorded three ‘metastases’ (cancers by another name) – two in females and one in a male.
They also recorded two kidney Wilm’s tumours in male rats, which had to be euthanized a year early because the cancerous tumours grew to more than 25 % of body size.
Five cancers – on top of other pathologies
This makes a total of at least 5 cancers in the treatment groups, in addition to the excess of grotesquely large tumours, premature deaths, pituitary, kidney, liver, and other pathologies compared with the controls.
The cancer cases certainly should not be ignored, and to make sure this important paper is not erased from public record, it is now freely available and permanently registered on thesparc.net – a floating knowledge archive for the survival of people and planet.
The findings are especially important in the light of new research and indeed, previous research on the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate (and GM food).
Glyphosate promotes growth of human breast cancer cells at minute concentrations
A research team in Thailand led by Jutamaad Satayavivad at the Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, Ministry of Education, and The Chulabhorn Graduate Institute in Bangkok, published a paper in the very same Journal – Food and Chemical Toxicology – from which the Séralini study was retracted.
They found that glyphosate at minute concentrations enhanced the proliferation of human hormone-dependent breast cancer T47D cells, but not hormone-independent breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells.
Their detailed experiments showed that glyphosate mimics the action of estrogen, and uses the same molecular pathways as the natural hormone to promote proliferation of the cancer cells.
They also found that glyphosate had synergistic effects in enhancing breast cancer cell growth in combination with genistein, a common phytestrogen in soybean.
Potent estrogenic effects
[Note: this section is technical and not easy reading. It can be summarised as stating that glyphosate acts as an estrogen, and operates via the same hormonal pathways as natural estrogen.]
Glyphosate at concentrations between 10-12 and 10-6 M (0.169 ng/L to 0.169 mg/L) boosted the proliferation of T47D cells by 15% to 30%, about half as effectively as the most potent estrogen, 17 b-estradiol (E2).
The same low concentrations of glyphosate induced the activation of estrogen response element (ERE) – a specific DNA sequence promoting gene expression with high affinity for the estrogen receptor (ER) that binds estrogen – thereby activating gene expression in response to estrogen.
Furthermore, this activation was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist, ICI 182780, indicating that the estrogenic activity of glyphosate was mediated via ERs.
The highest estrogen mimicking effect was at 10-9M or 0.169 mg/L and the effect was half that of estrogen, the most potent growth-promoter in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells.
ICI 182780, a specific inhibitor of estrogen at 1 nM reduced the proliferative effects of both glyphosate and E2. At 10 nM it completely inhibited the growth enhancing effects of glyphosate, suggesting that glyphosate acts via the estrogen receptor ER.
T47D-KBluc cells, with stably transfected triplet estrogen response element (ERE) promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct, when treated with glyphosate at the concentration range of 10-12 to 10-6 M, proliferated at 5-13 fold of the controls without glyphosate or E2, less than half that induced by estrogen.
Additive effect of glyphosate with soy phyto-estrogens
[Note: this section is technical and not easy reading. It can be summarised as stating that glyphosate acts, at very low concentrations indeed, to enhance the estrogenic effects of estrogen-like compounds that occur naturally in soy.]
That is not all. Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for soybean cultivation (especially for Roundup Ready GM soybean). And the researchers also found an additive estrogenic effect between glyphosate and genistein, a soybean phytestrogen.
Genistein phytestrogen is a major isoflavone in soybean. With a structure similar to E2, it acts like estrogen via the ER pathways. At concentrations ranging between 10-9 and 10-4M, genistein produced concentration-dependent proliferation effects in T47D cells (104 to 170 % of controls).
Genistein also stimulated ERE-gene transcription activity at the concentration range of 10-11 to 10-6M, to 5-25 fold the activity of controls.
The concentration ranges of glyphosate and genistein inducing ERE activity more than 10 fold of control are individually 10-11 to 10-9M and 10-7 to 10-5M respectively.
Glyphosate residues in soybean were found in the range of 0.1-5.6mg/g, while genistein were in the range of 0.01-1.2 mg/g. As mentioned earlier, glyphosate concentrations in human urine could be 1.8 x 10-8 to 1.4 x10-6 M.
Using these concentrations as a guide, the interaction range between the two estrogenic mimics were set at genistein 10-7 to 10-5 M, and glyphosate 10-11 to 10-9; the concentrations were varied with a fixed ratio of both compounds.
The results showed significant enhancement of ERE activation in the combination of 10-10 glyphosate with 10-6M genistein and 10-9 M glyphosate with 10-5M genistein. At 10-7M genistein and 10-9M glyphosate, cell proliferation was increased to 169 % of control, where individually, the promotion was 145 %.
The important new finding is that glyphosate mimics estrogen activity at minute concentrations; it may be inhibitory for estrogen at high conentrations – however other toxicities also come into effect.
Note that such non-linear concentration dependence is characteristic of environmental pollutants with endocrine disrupting effects (see the Seralini paper).
Glyphosate in humans and animals are within the range with carcinogenic potential
The lab findings indicate that low, environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate have estrogen-like activity.
Glyphosate concentrations between 1.8 x 10-8 to 1.4 x10-6 M were found in human urine in the United States. Analysis of urine samples of 182 subjects from 18 European countries found that 80 (43.9 %) have glyphosate, with a mean of 0.21 mg/L (> 10-12M) and a maximum of 1.82 mg/L (10-11M).
AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid), the main metabolite of glyphosate, was present in 65 (35.71 %), with a mean of 0.18 mg/L and a maximum of 2.63mg/L.
Malta, Latvia and UK have the highest values of glyphosate, Croatia, Belgium and Malta have the highest levels of AMPA. Glyphosate and AMPA do not correlate very well, probably dependent on the precise amounts of glyphosate and residue in people’s diet.
A new study led by Monika Krüger at University of Leipzig finds glyphosate residues in livestock, wild life and humans in Germany and Denmark at average concentrations of 9-5.4 mg/L in urine, and 35 mg/kg cow tissues, including intestine, liver, muscles spleen and kidney.
Human urine samples average 5.4 + 11.5 mg/L (range 0.01 to 40 mg/L); those on predominantly organic food have significantly lower levels compared to those on conventional foods, and individuals with chronic diseases have significantly higher levels than healthy individuals.
Cow urine samples average 35 + 50mg/L (range 0 to 164 mg/L). Germany cow urine samples have significantly lower values than those of Danish cows, and cows from GM-Free areas also have significantly lower concentrations of glyphosate than cows under conventional husbandry.
The tissues of cows from slaughter houses have average glyphosate concentrations of 20 + 26 mg/kg (range 4.7 to 108 mg/kg). Rabbit urine samples average 12.5 + 12.1 mg/L (range 3.17 to 42 mg/L); significantly higher than in those of hares.
Carcinogenic potential of glyphosate known since the 1980s
The carcinogenic potential of glyphosate has been known since the 1980s. An excellent review on glyphosate toxicity written by Caroline Cox of Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Eugene, Oregon in the US published in 1995 showed that most if not all the toxic effects of glyphosate had already been demonstrated in laboratory studies.
Glyphosate was not only acutely toxic to animals and human beings; subchronic studies showed that feeding glyphosate to animals for three months caused “reduced weight gain, diarrhea, and salivary gland lesion.”
Lifetime feeding caused “excess growth and death of liver cells, cataracts and lens degeneration, and increase in the frequency of thyroid, pancreas and liver tumors.” Also documented were effects on fertility: reduced sperm counts in males and lengthening of the oestrus cycle in females.
But the public were kept in the dark through a litany of outright fraud committed by testing companies working for the corporations, deception, and half-truths.
On carcinogenicity, Cox wrote: “The potential of glyphosate to cause cancer has been a controversial subject since the first lifetime feeding studies were analyzed in the early 1980s.
“The first study (1979-1981) found an increase in testicular interstitial tumors in male rats at the highest dose tested (30 mg/kg of body weight per day), as well as an increase in the frequency of a thyroid cancer in females.
“The second study (completed in 1983) found dose-related increases in the frequency of a rare kidney tumor in male mice. The most recent study (1988-1990) found an increase in the number of pancreas and liver tumors in male rats together with an increase of the same thyroid cancer found in the 1983 study in females.”
US-EPA dismisses all the findings
But the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) explained all that away. Cox continued: “All of these increases in tumor incidence are “not considered compound-related”, according to EPA.
In each case, different reasons are given for this conclusion: (Comments between square brackets added)
For the testicular tumors, EPA accepted the interpretation of an industry pathologist who said that the incidence in treated groups (12%) was similar to those observed in other control (not glyphosate-fed) rat feeding studies (4.5%). [This is a blatant, illicit use of controls].
For the thyroid cancer, EPA stated that it was not possible to consistently distinguish between cancers and tumors of this type, so that the incidences of the two should be considered together [a questionable manipulation of data]. The combined data are not statistically significant.
For the kidney tumors, the registrants reexamined slides of kidney tissue, finding an additional tumor in untreated mice so that statistical significance was lost. This was despite a memo from EPA’s pathologist stating that the lesion in question was not really a tumor [and hence amounts to a falsification of data].
For the pancreatic tumors, EPA stated that there was no dose-related trend and no progression to malignancy [this is frequently the case in endocrine disrupting chemicals].
For the liver tumors and the thyroid tumors, EPA stated that pairwise comparisons between treated and untreated animals were not statistically significant and there was no progression to malignancy.
So this is ‘evidence for non-carcinogenicity’
EPA concluded that glyphosate should be classified as Group E,”evidence of non-carcinogenicity for humans”.
They added that this classification “is based on the available evidence at the time of evaluation and should not be interpreted as a definitive conclusion that the agent will not be a carcinogen under any circumstances.”
The EPA authorities went against the advice of their own scientists, as Cox revealed. An EPA statistician wrote in a memo concerning one of the carcinogenicity studies:
“Viewpoint is a key issue. Our viewpoint is one of protecting the public health when we see suspicious data.”
Unfortunately, EPA has not taken that viewpoint in its assessment of glyphosate’s cancer-causing potential.
Epidemiological evidence that pesticides are associated with cancer risks
Studies dating back to the 1980s have indicated that despite the low overall mortality rate from heart disease, cancers of the lung, oesophagus, bladder and colon, farmers in many countries appear to have higher rates for Hodgkin’s disease, leukaemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, prostate, skin, brain, and connectives tissue compared with the general population.
The strongest links of cancers in agricultural workers are to herbicides. In 1993, the National Cancer Institute Bethesda Maryland in the US launched a large prospective cohort study in North Carolina and Iowa on people most likely to be exposed to pesticides – farmers and pesticide applicators – identified when they applied for a pesticide applicator license and undergo training and testing.
The 10-year Agricultural Health Study (1993-2003) was recently summarized to the press as the EPA proposes new safety rules for farm pesticide use:
“Current medical research suggests that while farmers are generally healthier than the general U.S. population, they may have higher rates of some cancers, including leukemia, myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cancers of the lip, stomach, skin, brain, and prostate.” This finding is no different from when the Study began.
Yet permitted levels of glyphosate are hugely increased
The supreme irony is that the EPA has set new standards that drastically increase the amounts of glyphosate allowed:
in oilseed crops such as flax, soybeans and canola, it is doubled from 20 ppm to 40 ppm;
in food crops, it is multiplied 30-fold, from 200 ppm to 6 000 ppm.
So although pesticides as a group is acknowledged to be carcinogenic, glyphosate is still considered a non-carcinogen by the EPA, the same as in 1985.
But since 1994, the first year that GM crops were commercially grown, the use of glyphosate herbicides has gone up enormously, with regulatory authorities putting up the allowable levels to track the upward trajectory.
Now it’s the world’s number one herbicide
By 2007, glyphosate is the most commonly used pesticide in the agricultural sector, and second most commonly used in homes and garden as well as industry / commercial / government sectors.
In other words, its use has become pervasive; and everyone in whatever sector will be exposed to it, through air, water and food as recent measurements in Europe confirms (see above).
Not surprisingly, it has proven difficult to link individual pesticides with specific cancers in the Agricultural Health Study, least of all to glyphosate, given that dozens of pesticides are typically used, and the general population probably as much exposed to glyphosate-herbicides and herbicide residues as farmers and agricultural workers.
A review published in 2012 (ahead of EPA’s decision to increase allowable glyphosate levels) “found no consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between total cancer (in adults or children) or any site-specific cancer and exposure to glyphosate.”
The lead author of the review has served as a paid consultant to Monsanto Company, and the research was supported by the Monsanto Company.
Unhelpful studies explained away
Actually, there have been studies aimed at glyphosate in particular that found increased risks to specific cancers, which were explained away in the review.
A Swedish study of 910 cancer cases and 1016 controls found a significant excess of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with the phenoxy herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorphenoxyactice acid (MCPA) OR (odds ratio) 2.1, and with glyphosate OR 2.02.
This confirmed the team’s earlier pooled analysis of two case control studies – one on NHL and another on hairy cell leukemia, a rare subtype of NHL – consisting of 515 cases and 1141 controls.
Increased risks were found for subjects exposed to herbicides OR 1.75, insecticides OR1.43, fungicides OR 3.11, impregnating agents OR 1.48. Among herbicides, significant associations were found for glyphosate OR 3.04, and 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) OR 2.62.
In another study, associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence was examined in a prospective cohort of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators – mostly male middle-aged – in Iowa and North Carolina, as part of the Agricultural Health Study.
There was no association with all cancers, but there was increased risk for melanoma (OR 1.8) adjusted for age, which decreased to OR 1.6 adjusted for age, demographic and lifestyle factors, and other pesticides.
Adjusted risk estimates for colon, rectum kidney and bladder cancers were elevated by 30% to 60% – but not statistically significant. However, there was more than 2-fold risk of multiple myeloma (OR 2.1) associated with ever-use of glyphosate.
The public health problem is real
The situation is best summed up in a 2013 review with lead author Michael Alavanja who also led the Agricultural Health Study:
“A growing number of well-designed epidemiological and molecular studies provide substantial evidence that the pesticides used in agricultural, commercial, and home and garden applications are associated with excess cancer risk … The literature does strongly suggest that the public health problem is real.”
They strongly recommend reducing the use of pesticides as the best measure to counteract the problem, a recommendation that some countries in Europe such as Sweden and Denmark have already adopted since the late 1990s.
But instead of reducing pesticide use, the US EPA has increased allowable glyphosate limits yet again – by 30-fold.
The case for a glyphosate ban
The carcinogenicity of glyphosate is among the latest avalanche of damning evidence that makes a ban on glyphosate all the more compelling. Sri Lanka is the second country in the world to ban glyphosate after El Salvador.
Having rejected GMOs back in 2003, it has now banned glyphosate on the strength of a study by Sri Lanka’s own scientists implicating glyphosate in an epidemic of deadly chronic kidney disease that has struck Sri Lanka and other poor farming countries (see Sri Lanka Bans Glyphosate for Deadly Kidney Disease Epidemic, SiS 62).
Glyphosate is already implicated in the marked deterioration of the health status of the US population. The incidence of numerous diseases and adverse conditions has gone up in parallel with the increase in GM crops and the use of glyphosate herbicide since 1994 – the first year of commercialization of GM crops.
A range of serious adverse impacts
These health problems include thyroid cancer, liver and bile duct cancer, obesity, high blood pressure, hospitalizations for acute kidney injury, diabetes, and end stage renal disease.
The herbicide is also a prime suspect in the rise of human male infertility worldwide (Glyphosate/Roundup and Human Male Infertility, SiS 62), and implicated in coeliac sprue, an autoimmune gluten intolerance bowel disease.
A recent test on 31 samples of GM glyphosate-tolerant soybean found average glyphosate level of 3.26mg/kg and average AMPA level of 5.74mg/kg, at the high end of estrogenic concentrations reported here, which could easily account for the levels present in human urine.
Glyphosate is well-known for its toxicities to cells and animals including livestock, crops and soil, and lethality to amphibians. It is also harmful to other wildlife (see Ban GMOs Now, ISIS special report).
The full extent of glyphosate’s eco-toxicity has emerged in new experiments. At concentrations of several parts per million, Roundup is lethal to the neotropical fish Piaractus mesopotamicus, a native to Brazil and Paraguay of considerable ecological and commercial value.
Exposure of the freshwater fish Channa punctatus to similar concentrations of Roundup caused oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in blood and gill cells.
As the retracted Séralini study and other research cited here make clear, the toxicities of glyphosate/Roundup are independent of and in addition to the toxicities of the GMOs, which is why a ban on both GMOs and glyphosate is in order.
Dr Mae Wan Ho is the director of the Institute of Science in Society (ISIS), which campaigns against unethical uses of biotechnology.
A fully referenced version of this article is posted on ISIS members website and otherwise available for download here
See other articles concerning glyphosate on The Ecologist.
Sounds absolutely delicious 🙂